Question special

To follow up on Dr. Sullivan’s comments on the use of test negative design (TND), most studies using TND occur in outpatient settings presumably to account for confounding. Was this a reason for excluding patients from the inpatient setting with acute respiratory illness (who met study criteria) during influenza season?

If feasible in future VE studies, is there a role for including patients in other healthcare settings (i.e. inpatient or long term facilities) while accounting for possibly higher vaccine uptake and higher severity of illnesses among these individuals?