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Lead Moderator

I would like to switch gears a little and discuss the costs of immuno-oncology agents. Currently, the treatment cost for immuno-oncology agents is exceedingly high and not affordable for many patients. For example, the treatment cost for Nivolumab is estimated at $104,000 per year or $9,000 per month. The FDA will likely approve Nivolumab for the treatment of advanced RCC sometime next year. This means Medicare will cover the majority of the costs associated with this drug; however, even a 20% copay would amount to a $20,000 out of pocket cost for the patient. Could the authors and experts comment on the high cost associated with immuo-oncology agents?