Question special

Thank you Dr. Ncube for starting off our questions! "Why?" is such an important question in understanding health disparities. So much literature has pointed out the existence of disparities, but getting to the mechanisms is crucial to finding solutions. Suggested mechanisms include systemic and structural racism, segregation, communication, under representation of minority providers, and trust as examples. I would love to hear from the experts their thoughts on how to best create solutions to health care disparities? Do solutions need to be tailored from structure all the way up or can more "superficial" solutions such as communication interventions or patient advocates work as well?

As someone interested in neurotrauma, I will use the example of fatal shootings which have been shown to be associated in Dr. Siegel's work (see image) to segregation and even links (recent abstract) to the number of slaves initially present in a particular state and county. How do we best address disparities in violence that are shown to be deep rooted?