The mitochondria have key functions beyond generating ATP such as apoptosis and iron homeostasis. To this end mitochondria need ~1500 proteins but only 13 of these are coded by mtDNA. Hence the majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by an individual's nuclear DNA and must be translated in the cytosol and imported into mitochondria. This raises the concern that donated mitochondria must function in congruence with a recipient’s gene expression. What evidence do we have to suggest that all humans can interchange mitochondria? Will certain donors have mitochondria that will not function amid a recipient's normal mitochondrial protein expression? In the first human trails, will there be an effort to match donors and recipients based on genomic similarity, or is this not a significant concern?
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