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Safer Prescribing — A Trial of Education, Informatics, and Financial Incentives


Tobias Dreischulte, Ph.D., Peter Donnan, Ph.D., Aileen Grant, Ph.D., Adrian Hapca, Ph.D., Colin McCowan, Ph.D., and Bruce Guthrie, M.B., B.Chir., Ph.D. 



N Engl J Med 2016; 374:1053-64 | March 16, 2016 | DOI:10.1056/NEJMsa1508955


BACKGROUND
High-risk prescribing and preventable drug-related complications are common in primary care. We evaluated whether the rates of high-risk prescribing by primary care clinicians and the related clinical outcomes would be reduced by a complex intervention.


METHODS
In this cluster-randomized, stepped-wedge trial conducted in Tayside, Scotland, we randomly assigned participating primary care practices to various start dates for a 48-week intervention comprising professional education, informatics to facilitate re- view,andfinancialincentivesforpracticestoreviewpatients’chartstoassessappro- priateness. The primary outcome was patient-level exposure to any of nine measures of high-risk prescribing of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selected antiplatelet agents (e.g., NSAID prescription in a patient with chronic kidney disease or coprescription of an NSAID and an oral anticoagulant without gastroprotection). Prespecified secondary outcomes included the incidence of related hospital admis- sions. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with the use of mixed-effect models to account for clustering in the data.


RESULTS
A total of 34 practices underwent randomization, 33 of which completed the study. Data were analyzed for 33,334 patients at risk at one or more points in the preinterven- tion period and for 33,060 at risk at one or more points in the intervention period. Targeted high-risk prescribing was significantly reduced, from a rate of 3.7% (1102 of 29,537 patients at risk) immediately before the intervention to 2.2% (674 of 30,187) at the end of the intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.68; P<0.001). The rate of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal ulcer or bleeding was significantly reduced from the preintervention period to the intervention period (from 55.7 to 37.0 admissions per 10,000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.86; P=0.002), as was the rate of admissions for heart failure (from 707.7 to 513.5 admissions per 10,000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.95; P=0.02), but admissions for acute kidney injury were not (101.9 and 86.0 admissions per 10,000 person-years, respectively; rate ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.09; P=0.19).


CONCLUSIONS
A complex intervention combining professional education, informatics, and financial incentives reduced the rate of high-risk prescribing of antiplatelet medications and NSAIDs and may have improved clinical outcomes. (Funded by the Scottish Govern- ment Chief Scientist Office; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01425502.) 


 Originally Appeared in The New England Journal of Medicine on March 16, 2016.


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